Three secondary school students and two tutors during a class.

Each one of our ITT curricula is underpinned by and draws from pertinent research in that subject area. You can read more about all the research which underpins our curriculum design by downloading the relevant ITT course curriculum and scrolling down to the Secondary or FET section.


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Ofsted Curriculum Research Review: Geography


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Ofsted Curriculum Research Review: History


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Ofsted Curriculum Research Review: Mathematics

Physical Education

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Ofsted Curriculum Research Review: Physical Education

Capel, S, Cliffe, J, & Lawrence, J (eds) 2020, Learning to Teach Physical Education in the Secondary School : A Companion to School Experience, Taylor & Francis Group, Milton. Available from: ProQuest Ebook Central. [17 January 2023].

  • This underpins the importance of the (PE) mentor through signposting / articulation to the trainee’s approach and regular tasks that can be undertaken with the trainee / Mentor.
  • Consistently directs the trainees to good practice and opportunities to develop communication / dialogue with Mentors.
  • In contrast Mentors can use this approach to reassure and reiterate good practice themselves through a reflective approach.

Deng, A. and Chen, A., 2022. Cognitive Load and Energy Balance Knowledge in High-School Physical Education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 1 (aop), pp.1-10.

  • Meaningful learning occurs when pupils are enabled to make sense of their learning and organise it coherently within what they already know.
  • It is therefore important that the curriculum sequence maximises the likelihood that all pupils will be able to connect the steps they have taken to know and do more in PE.
  • Deng (paper above) underpin the importance for pupils to acquire secure knowledge before moving on to more complex knowledge through approaches as retrieval, refining and building on key fundamental movement skills (FMS) before introducing additional complexity that compliments out spiral approaches to the trainee’s own curriculum for ITE

Vickerman, P., 2007. Teaching physical education to children with special educational needs. Routledge.

  • This paper is linked to the inclusive section of the research paper for the review looking at the opportunity to ensure that PE is consistently accessible for all and that all pupils can make progress.
  • Evokes the debate to challenge why some pupils with SEND share experiences of being unable to join in with certain activities, not having the equipment to participate fully.
  • This can provide positive and empowering conversations linked to the CCF and the adaptive approaches to ensure inclusivity through sport and activity accessibility.

Religious Education

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Ofsted Curriculum Research Review: Religious Education


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Ofsted Curriculum Research Review: Science
  • HOLMAN, J. and YEOMANS, E. 2018. Improving Secondary Science Guidance Report. Education Endowment Foundation.
  • INGLIS, M., 2018. Mentoring New Science Teachers. In: BANNER, I. and HILLIER, J., eds. ASE Guide to Secondary Science Education. 4th ed. Hatfield: Association for Science Education. pp. 276-291
  • Ofsted (2021) research review series: Science