It’s that time of the year again for the annual COP (Conference of the Parties) climate summit. This time we are in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, for COP27. Last year the UK hosted COP26 in Glasgow. The COP process is the political decision-making arm of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) its climate science arm.

The 1.2 degrees Celsius recorded increase in average global temperature; since pre-industrial levels (i.e. 1850s); has had devastating impacts on our planet. Recently, one third of Pakistan was underwater due to major floods, displacing millions of people. An IPCC report published earlier this year stated that 40% of the world’s population are ‘highly vulnerable’ to climate risks.

So have COP meetings made any difference?

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